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List of Bach cantatas by liturgical function

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This is a list of sacred Bach cantatascantatas composed for use in the Lutheran church by Johann Sebastian Bach, in the order of their intended use in the liturgical calendar. The prescribed readings for each occasion are listed first, then the cantata(s) for the occasion, including their BWV number, and the date of their first performance, if known.

[edit]Background

Throughout his life as a musician, Bach composed cantatas for both secular and sacred use. In Weimar, he was from 1714 to 1717 commissioned to compose one church cantata a month. In the course of almost four years there he thus covered most occasions of the liturgical year.

As cantor in Leipzig Bach was responsible for the Thomasschule and for the church music at the main churches, where a cantata was required for the service on Sundays and additional church holidays of the liturgical year. When Bach took up his office in 1723, he started to compose new cantatas for most occasions, beginning with Die Elenden sollen essen, BWV 75, first performed in the Nikolaikirche on 30 May 1723, the first Sunday after Trinity. He collected them in annual cycles, five are mentioned in obituaries, three are extant.[1] Bach started a second annual cycle on the first Sunday after Trinity of 1724, composing only chorale cantatas, each based on a single church hymn, first O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort, BWV 20, then works such as Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme, BWV 140Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BWV 61, and Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern, BWV 1.

Leipzig observed tempus clausum, quiet time, in Advent and Lent, when no cantatas were performed. All cantatas for these occasions date from Bach's earlier time. He reworked some cantatas from this period for different occasions. The high holidays ChristmasEaster and Pentecost were each celebrated on three days. Additionally, feasts were celebrated on fixed dates, the feasts of MaryPurification (Mariae Reinigung, 2 February),Annunciation (Mariae Verkündigung, 2 March) and Visitation (Mariae Heimsuchung, 2 July), and the Saint's days of St. John the Baptist (Johannis, 24 June), St. Michael (Michaelis, 29 September), St. Stephen (Stephanus, 26 December, the second day of Christmas) and St. John the Evangelist (Johannes, 27 December, the third day of Christmas). Further feasts on fixed days were New Year's Day (Neujahr, 1 January), Epiphany (Epiphanias, 6 January) and Reformation Day (Reformationsfest, 31 October). Sacred cantatas were also performed for the inauguration of a new city council (Ratswechsel, in Leipzig in August), consecration of church and organ, weddings, confession, funerals, and functions of the University of Leipzig.

The Lutheran church of Bach's time prescribed the same readings every year, a section from a Gospel and, recited before, a corresponding section from an Epistle. A connection between the cantata text and the readings was desired. The readings are listed for each occasion, Epistle and Gospel, and linked to the Bible text in the King James version, an English translation contemporary to Bach's time, which read the translation of Martin Luther.

The church year begins with the first Sunday in Advent, but Bach started his annual cycles on the first Sunday after Trinity, as John Eliot Gardiner points out:

It also marked the beginning of the second half of the Lutheran liturgical year: the Trinity season or "Era of the Church" in which core issues of faith and doctrine are explored, in contrast to the first half, known as the "Temporale" which, beginning in Advent and ending on Trinity Sunday, focuses on the life of Christ, His incarnation, death and resurrection.[2]

Roman numerals refer to the position of the given Sunday with respect to a feast day or season. For example, "Advent III" is the third Sunday in Advent and "Trinity V" is the fifth Sunday after Trinity. The number of Sundays after Epiphany and Trinity varies with the position of Easter in the calender. There can be between 22 and 27 Sundays after Trinity. The maximum number of Sundays after Epiphany did not occur while Bach wrote cantatas.

[edit]Advent

Advent is celebrated on the four Sundays before Christmas. In Leipzig, only on the first Sunday a cantata was performed, because it was a Fastenzeit (season of abstinence).

[edit]Advent I

Romans 13:11–14, night is advanced, day will come
Matthew 21:1–9, the Entry into Jerusalem

[edit]Advent II

Romans 15:4–13, call of the Gentiles
Luke 21:25–36, coming of the Son of man

[edit]Advent III

1 Corinthians 4:1–5, the ministry of faithful apostles
Matthew 11:2–10John the Baptist in prison

[edit]Advent IV

Philippians 4:4–7, Be joyful in the Lord
John 1:19–28, testimony of John the Baptist

[edit]Christmas

The Christmas season was celebrated from Christmas Day through Epiphany. For the Christmas season of 1734 Bach composed the Christmas Oratorio in six parts, to be performed as the cantata in the service on the six feast days, three days of Christmas, New Year, the Sunday after New Year and Epiphany.

[edit]Christmas Day

Titus 2:11–14, God's mercy appeared (or
Isaiah 9:2–7, Unto us a child is born)
Luke 2:1–14NativityAnnunciation to the shepherds and the angels' song

[edit]Second Day of Christmas

On this day Leipzig celebrated Christmas and St. Stephen's Day in alternating years, with different readings.

For Christmas:
Titus 3:4–7, God's mercy appeared in Christ
Luke 2:15–20, the shepherds at the manger
for St. Stephen's Day:
Acts 6:8–15 and 7:55–60Martyrdom of Stephen
Matthew 23:35–39, Jerusalem killing her prophets

[edit]Third Day of Christmas

Hebrews 1:1–14, Christ is higher than the angels
John 1:1–14, prologue, also called Hymn to the Word

[edit]Christmas I

Depending on the position of Christmas, there may be a Sunday before or after the new year.

Galatians 4:1–7, Through Christ we are free from the law
Luke 2:33–40Simeon and Anna with Mary in the temple

[edit]New Year's Day

On 1 January, the New Year was celebrated as well as the Naming and Circumcision of Jesus.

Galatians 3:23–29, By faith we inherit
Luke 2:21 Circumcision and naming of Jesus

[edit]New Year I

1 Peter 4:12–19, Suffering of Christians
Matthew 2:12–23, the Flight into Egypt

[edit]Epiphany

Isaiah 60:1–6, the heathen will convert
Matthew 2:1–12, the Wise Men From the East

[edit]After Epiphany

Depending on the date of Easter, a variable number (none up to four) of Sundays occurred between Epiphany and Septuagesima, the third Sunday before Ash Wednesday.

[edit]Epiphany I

Romans 12:1–6, the duties of a Christian
Luke 2:41–52, the finding in the Temple

[edit]Epiphany II

Romans 12:6–16, we have several gifts
John 2:1–11, the Marriage at Cana

[edit]Epiphany III

Romans 12:17–21, rules for life
Matthew 8:1–13, the healing of a leper

[edit]Epiphany IV

Romans 13:8–10, love completes the law
Matthew 8:23–27, Jesus calming the storm

[edit]Septuagesima

Septuagesima is the third Sunday before Ash Wednesday.

1 Corinthians 9:24–10:5, race for victory
Matthew 20:1–16parable of the Workers in the Vineyard

[edit]Sexagesima

Sexagesima is the second Sunday before Ash Wednesday.

2 Corinthians 11:19–12:9, God's power is mighty in the week,
Luke 8:4–15parable of the Sower

[edit]Estomihi

Estomihi or Quinquagesima is the Sunday before Ash Wednesday.

1 Corinthians 13:1–13, praise of love
Luke 18:31–43Healing the blind near Jericho

[edit]Lent

During Lent, the Sundays between Ash Wednesday and Easter, "quiet time" was observed in Leipzig. Only the feast of Annunciation was celebrated with a cantata, even if it fell in that time. On Good Friday, a Passion was performed in Leipzig in a Vespers service.

[edit]Oculi

Ephesians 5:1–9, advice for a righteous life
Luke 11:14–28, casting out a devil

[edit]Palm Sunday

Philippians 2:5–11, everyone be in the spirit of Christ (or
1 Corinthians 11:23–32), of the Last Supper
Matthew 21:1–9Entry into Jerusalem

[edit]Easter

The Easter season comprises the time up to Pentecost, starting with three days of Easter.

[edit]Easter Sunday

1 Corinthians 5:6–8, Christ is our Easter lamb
Mark 16:1–8Resurrection

[edit]Easter Monday

Acts 10:34–43, sermon of St. Peter
Luke 24:13–35, the road to Emmaus

[edit]Easter Tuesday

Acts 13:26–33, sermon of St. Paul in Antiochia
Luke 24:36–47, the appearance of Jesus to the Apostles in Jerusalem

[edit]Easter I

The Sundays between Easter and Pentecost have Latin names, derived from the beginning of the prescribed readings. The first Sunday after Easter is called Quasimodogeniti.

1 John 5:4–10, our faith is the victory
John 20:19–31, the appearance of Jesus to the Disciples, first without then with Thomas, in Jerusalem

[edit]Easter II

The second Sunday after Easter is called Misericordias Domini.

1 Peter 2:21–25, Christ as a model
John 10:12–16, the Good Shepherd

[edit]Easter III

The third Sunday after Easter is called Jubilate.

1 Peter 2:11–20
John 16:16–23Farewell discourse, announcement of the Second Coming

[edit]Easter IV

The forth Sunday after Easter is called Cantate.

James 1:17–21
John 16:5–15Farewell discourse, announcement of Comforter

[edit]Easter V

The fifth Sunday after Easter is called Rogate.

James 1:22–27, doers of the word, not only listeners
John 16:23–30Farewell discourse, prayers will be fulfilled

[edit]Ascension

Acts 1:1–11, farewell and Ascension
Mark 16:14–20, Ascension

[edit]Ascension I

The Sunday after Ascension is called Exaudi.

1 Peter 4:8–11, serve each other
John 15:26–16:4Farewell discourse, announcement of the Spirit of Truth and persecution

[edit]Pentecost

[edit]Pentecost Sunday

Pentecost Sunday (1. Pfingsttag) is also called Whit Sunday.

Acts 2:1–13 the Holy Spirit
John 14:23–31Farewell discourse, announcement of the Spirit who will teach

[edit]Pentecost Monday

Pentecost Monday (2. Pfingsttag) is also called Whit Monday.

Acts 10:42–48, sermon of St. Peter for Cornelius
John 3:16–21, God loved the world so much ...

[edit]Pentecost Tuesday

Pentecost Tuesday (3. Pfingsttag) is also called Whit Tuesday.

Acts 8:14–17, the Holy Spirit in Samaria
John 10:1–10, the Good Shepherd

[edit]Trinity

On Trinity Sunday, the Sunday after Pentecost, the Trinity is celebrated.

Romans 11:33–36, depth of wisdom
John 3:1–15, the meeting of Jesus and Nicodemus

[edit]Sundays after Trinity

A variable number of Sundays occurs between Trinity and The first Sunday in Advent, a maximum of 27, if Easter is extremely early.

[edit]Trinity I

1 John 4:16–21, God is Love
Luke 16:19–31, the parable of the Rich man and Lazarus

[edit]Trinity II

1 John 3:13–18, Whoever doesn't love, remains in Death
Luke 14:16–24parable of the great banquet

[edit]Trinity III

1 Peter 5:6–11, Cast thy burden upon the Lord
Luke 15:1–10parable of the Lost Sheep and parable of the Lost Coin

[edit]Trinity IV

Romans 8:18–23, "For the earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God."
Luke 6:36–42Sermon on the Mount: be merciful, judge not

[edit]Trinity V

1 Peter 3:8–15 "Sanctify the Lord God in your hearts"
Luke 5:1–11Peter's great catch of fish

[edit]Trinity VI

Romans 6:3–11, "By Christ's death we are dead for sin"
Matthew 5:20–26Sermon on the Mount: better justice

[edit]Trinity VII

Romans 6:19–23, "the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life"
Mark 8:1–9The Feeding of the 4000

[edit]Trinity VIII

Romans 8:12–17, "For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God"
Matthew 7:15–23Sermon on the Mount: warning of false prophets

[edit]Trinity IX

1 Corinthians 10:6–13, warning of false gods, consolation in temptation
Luke 16:1–9parable of the Unjust Steward

[edit]Trinity X

1 Corinthians 12:1–11, different gifts, but one spirit
Luke 19:41–48, Jesus announces the destruction of Jerusalem, Cleansing of the Temple

[edit]Trinity XI

1 Corinthians 15:1–10, on the gospel of Christ and his (Paul's) duty as an apostle
Luke 18:9–14, parable of the Pharisee and the Tax Collector

[edit]Trinity XII

2 Corinthians 3:4–11, the ministration of the Spirit
Mark 7:31–37, the healing of a deaf mute man

[edit]Trinity XIII

Galatians 3:15–22, law and promise
Luke 10:23–37parable of the Good Samaritan

[edit]Trinity XIV

Galatians 5:16–24, works of the flesh, fruit of the Spirit
Luke 17:11–19Cleansing ten lepers

[edit]Trinity XV

Galatians 5:25–6:10, admonition to "walk in the Spirit"
Matthew 6:23–34Sermon on the Mount: don't worry about material needs, but seek God's kingdom first

[edit]Trinity XVI

Ephesians 3:13–21Paul praying for the strengthening of faith in the congregation of Ephesus
Luke 7:11–17, Raising of the Young man from Nain

[edit]Trinity XVII

Ephesians 4:1–6, admonition to keep the unity of the Spirit
Luke 14:1–11Healing a man with dropsy on the Sabbath

[edit]Trinity XVIII

1 Corinthians 1:4–8Paul's thanks for grace of God in Ephesus
Matthew 22:34–46, the Great Commandment

[edit]Trinity XIX

Ephesians 4:22–28, "put on the new man, which after God is created"
Matthew 9:1–8Healing the paralytic at Capernaum

[edit]Trinity XX

Ephesians 5:15–21, "walk circumspectly, ... filled with the Spirit"
Matthew 22:1–14parable of the great banquet

[edit]Trinity XXI

Ephesians 6:10–17, "take unto you the whole armour of God"
John 4:46–54healing the nobleman's son

[edit]Trinity XXII

Philippians 1:3–11, Thanks and prayer for the congregation in Philippi
Matthew 18:23–35parable of the unforgiving servant

[edit]Trinity XXIII

Philippians 3:17–21, "our conversation is in heaven"
Matthew 22:15–22, the question about paying taxes, answered by Render unto Caesar...

[edit]Trinity XXIV

Colossians 1:9–14, prayer for the Colossians
Matthew 9:18–26, the story of Jairus' daughter

[edit]Trinity XXV

1 Thessalonians 4:13–18, the coming of the Lord
Matthew 24:25–28, the Tribulation

[edit]Trinity XXVI

2 Peter 3:3–13, look for new heavens and a new earth
Matthew 25:31–46, the Second Coming of Christ

[edit]Trinity XXVII

1 Thessalonians 5:1–11, be prepared for the day of the Lord
Matthew 25:1–13parable of the Ten Virgins

[edit]Fixed festivals within the Liturgical Year

[edit]Purification

The Purification of Mary (Mariae Reinigung) and the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple are celebrated on 2 February.

Malachi 3:1–4, the Lord will come to his temple
Luke 2:22–32, the purification of Mary and and the presentation of Jesus at the Temple, including Simeon's canticle Nunc dimittis

[edit]Annunciation

The Annunciation (Mariae Verkündigung) is celebrated on 25 March.

Isaiah 7:10–16, prophecy of the birth of the Messiah
Luke 1:26–38, the angel Gabriel announces the birth of Jesus

[edit]St. John's Day

The day of John the Baptist (Johannis) is celebrated on 24 June.

Isaiah 40:1–5, the voice of a preacher in the desert
Luke 1:57–80, the birth of John the Baptist and the Benedictus of Zechariah

[edit]Visitation

Visitation, the visit of Mary with Elizabeth, including her song of praise, the Magnificat, is celebrated on 2 July.

Isaiah 11:1–5, prophecy of the Messiah
Luke 1:39–56, Visitation

[edit]St. Michael's Day

St. Michael's Day (Michaelis) is celebrated on 29 September.

Revelation 12:7–12, fight of Michael with the dragon
Matthew 18:1–11, heaven belongs to the children, the angels see the face of God

[edit]Reformation Day

Reformation Day is celebrated on 31 October.

2 Thessalonians 2:3–8, be steadfast against adversaries
Revelation 14:6–8, fear God and honour him

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[레벨:29]전남정

2012.04.01 19:15:16

집사님, 이 목록은 예배와 설교 공지란으로 옮겼으면 합니다.

수고에 감사드립니다.

[레벨:18]이재천

2013.01.27 05:31:30

교회력과 관련된 좋은 자료인 것 같이 보입니다.

서울 늦깎이가,  "이런 자료도 있구나", 하면서 살펴 보고 갑니다.

 

고맙습니다.

 

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